While teaching, the teacher has to keep in view the following principles of learning so that learning becomes effective, efficient and inspirational:
Principal or Law of self-learning: It is now universally accepted in a ‘learning society’ that it is not so important as ‘to how much to learn’ but it is very important ‘to learn how to learn?’ The learners must be left free to express themselves, for the only education is self-education. The essential activity in learning is not the adjustment of child to teacher but is to enable him to adjust himself to the environment and also to change the environment to adjust himself. Learning must enable the child to work independently and without the teacher at a later stage. The two important aspects of teaching are, stimulation and inspiration. The teachers must fire the enthusiasm of their pupils. They must encourage them in the development of their natural desire to work and to be active and guide these desires into worthwhile channels. The late President Eliot of Harvard once said: “The supreme value of a teacher lies not in the regular performance of routine duties, but in his power to lead and inspire his students through the influence of his own mental and moral personality and examples.” Burton has also said: “Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning.”
A wise teacher takes not of the following:
Individual differences in learning and an individual approach which may however differ from child to child or within the same child when his learning takes place under different situations and conditions.
- Setting up goals or standards not beyond the capacity of the learner.
- Keeping in view that the previous experience of the leaner is fundamental in the process of learning.
- Awareness of the fact that knowledge of one’s own performance, mistakes and information of successful result helps in learning.
- Knowing that the active participation by the learner is essential in learning.
- Realizing that a motivate learner can acquire knowledge and understanding more quickly than one who is not motivated.
- Keeping in view that excessive motivation may sometimes be less effective in some kinds of learning. In some instances it may result in ‘pushing’ the child too much disregarding his abilities.
- Knowing that learning depends on the mental set or the mood of the learner. The teacher has to find out whether the learner is ready for the task or not. If not, what are the ways and means to make him ready for the purpose.
- Believing that emotion of the learner is a powerful factor in learning and the teacher must learn how to use this to his greatest advantage. In this respect development of good interpersonal relationships in the classroom as well as in the school should not be neglected by the teachers.
- Having faith that good study habits of the individual also promote learning.